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Knee Replacement Surgeries


Knee Replacement Surgery is a bone surgery, in which the orthopedic surgeon replaces the damaged part of the knee with an artificial joint made of metal or plastic.

Types of Knee Replacement Surgery

  • Partial Knee Replacement: is a surgery to replace only one part of the knee. It can replace the knee cap part, lateral part or the medial part of the knee.
    Sub Vastus and Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement: In this replacement surgery, the surgeon only pushes the knee cap aside to expose the joint. This helps to preserve the strength of the muscles in front of the thigh extensors. As the bones are not separating, it also minimizes the stretch injury to surrounding the joints.
  • Computer Assisted Knee Replacement: is a surgery performed with the aid of computer technology.  This type of surgery helps the surgeon to align patient’s bone and implants with greater precision and accuracy. 
  • Partial Knee Replacement Surgery: This surgery is done when arthritis affects only one side of the knee. It can be performed through a smaller cut than in a Total Replacement Surgery.
  • Revision Knee Replacement: This procedure is needed if the previous replacement has worn out or needs to be redone.
  • Constrained or Hinged Knee Replacement: is used for highly unstable knees and the ligaments are unable to support other types of prostheses. Typically it is used for severely damaged knees or in elderly people undergoing revision arthroplasty.
  • Robotic Knee Replacement: this surgical procedure makes use of CT scan to generate the 3-D model of patient’s knee joint which helps the surgeon in planning the surgery. During the procedure, the robotic software aids the surgeon by providing dynamic information to precise the placement of the implant and enhances the accuracy of the procedure.
  • Painless or Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement: In this procedure the muscles around the joints are not cut and this will not incite inflammation as much as that of conventional method. Hence this surgery is painless and the recovery period is short.

Conditions treated

Knee Replacement Surgery benefits the following conditions also:

  • Osteoarthritis: the condition when the cushion between the knee and bone joints break down
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: the condition when the body's immune system attacks and destroys the lining of the knee.
  • Anterior Crutiate Ligament (ACL): ACL sprain or tear is the most common knee injuries, which causes the knee to become unstable and the joint to slide forward too much.

Pros and Cons

Pros:

  • Increased mobility
  • Freedom from pain
  • Improved quality of life

Cons

  • Infections or blood clots
  • The artificial joint will not be as good as a natural knee
  • The replaced joint may become loose or wear out after a time

Authored By: Dr. S. V. Santpure

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